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CHI TIẾT
Nghiên cứu thành phần hóa học của hạt mắc ca (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche) trồng tại Lâm Đồng
Investigation of the chemical composition of the nut oils of Macadamia integrifolia (Maiden & Betche) grown in Lam Dong province
Dương Ngọc Tú, Hồ Văn Khánh, Lưu Đức Huy, Nguyễn Thị Diệp, Bùi Đức Trung, Vũ Thảo Chi
Số: 514 - Tháng 2/2019 - Trang 16-19

 Mắc ca là loài cây thuộc họ Proteaceae, có xuất xứ từ Đông Bắc Úc. Chi Macadamia gồm nhiều loài khác nhau và đóng vai trò quan trọng trong thương mại, tuy nhiên những nghiên cứu về hình thái và gen được công bố bởi Austin Mast và các sinh viên vào năm 2008 đã chia thành 4 loài.

Macadamia integrifolia được trồng nhiều ở Úc. Người bản địa Úc sử dụng mắc ca để tăng cường sức khỏe và sức đề kháng trước những điều kiện thời tiết khắc nghiệt vì chúng chứa hàm lượng lớn các acid béo không no. Macadamia integrifolia là nguồn tài nguyên quan trọng đối với Úc và Hawaii.

Ở Việt Nam, cây mắc ca được trồng nhiều ở Tây Nguyên và được coi là cây công nghiệp mới, có giá trị cao, đem lại nhiều lợi ích cho phát triển kinh tế vùng. Nghiên cứu này tập trung vào phát hiện các thành phần hóa học chính có trong hạt, qua đó có thể đánh giá được chất lượng hạt mắc ca trồng tại Việt Nam so với các vùng trồng các trên thế giới.

Nguyên liệu

Hạt cây mắc ca (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche) được thu hoạch tại tỉnh Lâm Đồng (tháng 2/2018) được giám định tên khoa học bởi GS. Hoàng Hòe (Phó Chủ tịch Hiệp hội Mắc ca Việt Nam).

Các kỹ thuật phân tích

- Sắc ký khí - khối phổ (GC-MS)

- Đo phổ cộng hưởng từ hạt nhân (NMR)

- Chiết và phân lập

Kết quả

Lần đầu tiên hạt mắc ca trồng tại Lâm Đồng đã được tiến hành phân tích một số thành phần hóa học bằng các phương pháp sắc ký, sắc ký khí kết hợp khối phổ và phổ cộng hưởng từ hạt nhân. Từ dịch chiết n-hexan đã bước đầu phân lập và xác định cấu trúc của 4 acid là acid palmitic (chất 1), acid palmitoleic (chất 2), acid stearic (chất 3) và acid oleic (chất 4). Kết quả này góp phần khẳng định cây mắc ca (M. integrifolia) là cây trồng mới được đưa vào Việt Nam phát triển có chứa thành phần dinh dưỡng có lợi cho sức khỏe và có lợi ích kinh tế nông nghiệp.

 Palmitic acid (1), palmitoleic acid (2), stearic acid (3) and oleic acid (4) were isolated from the hexane extracts of the nut oils of Macadamia integrifolia (Maiden & Betche) grown in Lam Dong province. Their structures were determined by MS and NMR in reference to the literature. This is the first report on the chemical constituents of the oils of Macadamia integrifolia nuts of Lam Dong province in Viet Nam.
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