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CHI TIẾT
Nghiên cứu tác dụng hạ huyết áp trên thực nghiệm của một số dạng chế biến theo y học cổ truyền từ nụ hòe (Styphnolobium japonicum(L.) Schott)
Experimental hypotensive activity of some traditional remedies from the flowers of (Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott)
Đinh Thị Diệu Hằng, Đỗ Thị Kim Oanh, Đinh Thị Xuyến, Trần Thị Thu Hiền, Hoàng Thị Quyên, Nguyễn Thanh Loan, Lê Thiên Kim và CS.
Số: 526 - Tháng 2/2020 - Trang 47-51

Tăng huyết áp là một bệnh lý mang tính toàn cầu. Theo thống kê của Tổ chức Y tế thế giới, hiện nay có khoảng 1 tỷ người đang mắc tăng huyết áp và ước đoán đến năm 2025, con số này sẽ lên đến 1,56 tỷ. Để điều trị bệnh tăng huyết áp, cùng với điều chỉnh chế độ ăn uống, sinh hoạt, các thuốc điều trị tăng huyết áp có nguồn gốc hóa dược được dùng phổ biến. Bệnh nhân phải sử dụng thuốc hàng ngày và suốt đời để kiểm soát huyết áp. Tuy nhiên, các thuốc hóa dược thường có giá thành cao cùng với nhiều tác dụng không mong muốn. Ngày nay, việc sử dụng các sản phẩm có nguồn gốc dược liệu để hỗ trợ kiểm soát huyết áp đang ngày càng được nhiều người quan tâm.

Hòe là một dược liệu được sử dụng lâu đời trong y học cổ truyền với nhiều công dụng như lương huyết thanh nhiệt, chỉ huyết; hạ mỡ máu, thanh phế chống viêm, chống co thắt, chống loét, chống tiêu chảy, đau mắt; có tác dụng tốt với hệ tim mạch, được sử dụng rộng rãi trong dân gian để điều trị tăng huyết áp. Tuy nhiên, hiện nay vẫn chưa có các nghiên cứu đầy đủ về tác dụng hạ huyết áp của hòe trên thực nghiệm. Vì vậy, nghiên cứu này được thực hiện nhằm đánh giá tác dụng hạ huyết áp trên thực nghiệm của các dạng cao chiết được chế biến theo Y học cổ truyền từ nụ hòe.

Nguyên liệu

- Thuốc nghiên cứu: Nụ hòe sống, nụ hòe sao vàng và nụ hòe sao cháy được nghiền thành bột nửa thô (710/255) bằng thuyền tán.

- Hóa chất và máy móc nghiên cứu: Cortison acetat và hydroclorothiazid (chất chuẩn do Viện Kiểm nghiệm thuốc Trung ương cung cấp); dầu oliu Extra Virgin Oil; dung dịch natri clorid 1 %; hệ thống đo huyết áp đuôi chuột không xâm lấn của hãng ADInstrument (New Zealand); buồng làm ấm động vật thực nghiệm của hãng Ugo – Basile (Italy).

- Động vật thực nghiệm: Chuột cống chủng Wistar.

Phương pháp nghiên cứu

- Gây mô hình tăng huyết áp thực nghiệm trên chuột cống trắng

- Đánh giá tác dụng hạ huyết áp của hòe trên mô hình gây tăng huyết áp

- Xử lý số liệu

Kết luận

Các cao chiết từ nụ hòe liều tương đương 1,2 g dược liệu/kg/ngày đều cho thấy tác dụng hạ huyết áp tâm thu, huyết áp tâm trương, huyết áp trung bình. Trong đó, mẫu cao chiết từ nụ hòe sao vàng bằng dung môi ethanol 30 % (SV – T1B) cho tác dụng hạ huyết áp tâm thu, huyết áp tâm trương, huyết áp trung bình tốt nhất với các tỷ lệ tương ứng là 29,90 %, 20,38 % và 24,14 % so với lô mô hình.   

Các cao chiết từ nụ hòe liều tương đương 1,2 g dược liệu/kg/ngày không làm ảnh hưởng đến nhịp tim chuột.

The blood pressure lowering effect of Flos Styphnolobii japonici imaturi (Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott) was experimentally evaluated in cortisone-induced hypertensive white rats. 90 white rats were randomly divided into 9 lots. The rats in the control and model lot were treated with saline; those of positive lot were administered hydroclothrothiazid, each of the 6 trial lots was orally administered by one of the 6 types of extracts from 3 kinds of material - fresh, stir-fried and carnonizing stir-fried one; and each was extracted with two different solvents – 30 % and 70 % ethanol. Experimentally, all the tested dry extracts decreased the blood pressure and exhibted no influence on heart rate. Dry ethanol extracts of Flos Styphnolobii japonici imaturi (extracted with 30% ethanol) significantly improved systolic, diastolic and average blood pressures in comparison with those indexes in model and positive lots.

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